Phytophthora megakarya. Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivo...

A new distribution map is provided for Phytophthora megakarya Brasier

(From Brasier and Griffin, 1979).P. megakarya is a member of Group II of Phytophthora, as defined by Stamps et al. (1990).It produces caducous papillate sporangia, is heterothallic and antheridia are amphigynous.Sporangia are limoniform, obpyriform or ellipsoid with rounded bases, varying from 20-60 x 13-41 µm, with a length-breadth ratio of 1.2-1.6, and are formed in a sympodium.Phytochemical screening and antifungal activity of Chromolaena odorata extracts against isolate of Phytophthora megakarya using agar-well diffusion method. AI Adeyemi, OI Vincent, OM Olujenyo. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 4 …Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals.The arrival and subsequent dispersal of Phytophthora megakarya within young cacao plantations, previously free of black pod and containing cacao germplasm that is evaluated for its resistance to P ...Although P. megakarya only exists in Africa, the species Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora capsici are responsible for the disease in South America. The search for effective control methods was stepped up in 1988, when P. megakarya arrived in Ivory Coast, the world's leading cocoa-producing country. Genetic control is a promising …Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and …The formulation was tested for inhibition of spore germination in Phytophthora megakarya and showed 100% inhibition at 10% w/v of formulation. In planta assay performed on two hybrids of cocoa ...Phytophthora megakarya is a devastating oomycete pathogen that causes black pod disease in cacao.Phytophthora species produce a protein that has a similar sequence to the necrosis and ethylene inducing protein (Nepl) of Fusarium oxysporum. Multiple copies of NEP1 orthologs (PmegNEP) have been identified in P. megakarya and four other Phytophthora species (P. citrophthora, P. capsici, P ...The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract (AqE), methanolic extract (ME) of Thevetia peruvi ana, and Ridomil on cocoa black pod disease ( Phytophthora megakarya ...Black pod disease is caused by several species of Phytophthora. In Cameroon, the disease is mainly due to Phytophtora megakarya. The pathogen attacks cocoa pods and can lead to almost total production losses in a plot if no control measures are applied. To control the disease, several research programmes are being conducted: …Physiological studies were made of six isolates of Phytophthora from cocoa, three of the A2 mating type of P. palmivora (71, 78, and 29) and three of the A1 mating type of the recently described P. megakarya (9A, 75, and 10B). Many of these studies revealed a clear differentiation between the two species. In all experiments the growth rate of the isolates of P. palmivora was higher than that ...The cocoa black pod disease is caused by a fungus Phytophthora sp, which comprises two main species (Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya) commonly found in Ivorian cocoa plots and which cause significant damage. Despite numerous studies, this disease continues to spread and even more so Phytophthora megakarya, which did not exist in Côte d'Ivoire, is beginning to spread ...Phytophthora megakarya is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in west and central Africa. This pathogen can cause detrimental loss of yield in the economically important cocoa industry, worth approximately $70 billion annually. It can damage any part of the tree, causing total yield losses which can easily ...Phytophthora ramorum is the causative agent of sudden oak death ( Garbelotto et al., 2001; Rizzo et al., 2002) and is capable to infect more than 100 plant and fern species ( Haun, 2011 ). P. ramorum is featured with a predominant aerial dissemination ( Davidson et al., 2005) and infects tree through intact bark.Feb 14, 2017 · Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in ... Phytophthora megakarya is a plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in West and Central Africa. This pathogen can cause detrimental loss of yield in the economically important cocoa industry. It can damage any part of the tree, causing a wide range in the reduction of yield. A miThe negative control using sterile distilled water showed no inhibitory effect on Phytophthora megakarya while 41.00 mm zone of clearance was observed in the positive control test using Metalaxyl ...In African cacao-producing countries, control of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is a priority. Introducing biological control agents as part of a P. megakarya control strategy is highly desirable, especially in a perspective of pesticide reduction.Trichoderma species are among the most used biological control agents. In Cameroon, Trichoderma asperellum formulated in ...inoculum of Phytophthora megakarya (causal agent of cacao black pod rot disease) upon establishment in 2006 were monitored for pres-ence of disease on a weekly basis from 2009 to 2016. Ripley's K(r) function, join count statistics, and Fisher's Exact test were used to analyze spatial and temporal disease dynamics. Disease distributionPhytophthora palmivora Phytophthora megakarya: Hosts: cocoa (Theobroma cacao) EPPO Code: PHYTPL: Black pod disease is a protozoal disease of Cocoa trees. This pathogen if left untreated can destroy all yields; annually the pathogen can cause a yield loss of up to 1/3 and up to 10% of total trees can be lost completely.Phytophthora megakarya is restricted to Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, and Ghana, causing about 10 percent crop loss. Phytophthora capsici parasitizes cocoa in Central and South America. It is the predominant cause of pod rot in Brazil where it is less aggressive than Phytophthora palmivora. Phytophthora citrophthora also attacks cocoa in Brazil.Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses in Cameroon. Field experiments were carried out over two successive years in two smallholders’ plots of cocoa trees, in order to assess the impact of diseased pod removal (phytosanitary pod removal) on disease progress, total production and final …Phytophthora megakarya est responsable de la pourriture brune qui ravage le cacaoyer en Afrique, mettant en péril la production mondiale de cacao. Cet agent pathogène endémique à l'Afrique y a probablement émergé suite à l'introduction du cacaoyer au 19e siècle. L'hypothèse la plus probable est celle d'un saut d'hôte à partir d ...Phytophthora megakarya is restricted to Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, and Ghana, causing about 10 percent crop loss. Phytophthora capsici parasitizes cocoa in Central and South America. It is the predominant cause of pod rot in Brazil where it is less aggressive than Phytophthora palmivora. Phytophthora citrophthora also attacksPhytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora are considered the most important for cacao cultivation in Central and West Africa and most studies are related to them (Guest 2007; Adomako 2007 ...Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by DifferentMechanisms Shahin S. Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J. Lary, Brent A. Kronmiller, Danyu Shen, Mary D. Strem, Ishmael Amoako-Attah, Andrew Yaw Akrofi, B.La production et la pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer due a Phytophthora megakarya ont ete etudiees durant 3 annees consecutives dans un essai diallele complet, 6 x 6, sans les … Expand. 47. PDF. Save. La pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer au Cameroun: mise en évidence d'un caractère de résistance au champ.Feb 1, 2008 · In Cameroon, various species of Phytophthora exist but the most prevalent and aggressive one is Phytophthora megakarya (Nyassé, 1997). Losses can reach up to 100% of the cocoa production in smallholders’ plantations when no control measures are taken (Despréaux et al., 1988, Berry and Cilas, 1994). In Cameroon, management of black pod ... Many Phytophthora species have a soil borne phase in their natural life cycles even though disease expression often occurs on aerial plant parts. In Cameroon, black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), is caused by P. megakarya. Primary inoculum ofBUSUK BUAH KAKAO (Phytophthora megakarya L.) Spraying Of Chitosan to Control Fruit Rot Disease of Cocoa (Phytophthora megakarya L.) Septiana1)*, Suskandini Ratih Dirmawati2), Rusdi Evizal3) 1)Jurusan Budidaya Tanaman Pangan, Program Studi Hortikultura, Politeknik Negeri Lampung, Jl. Soekarno Hatta, Bandar LampungPhytophthora megakarya is restricted to Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, and Ghana, causing about 10 percent crop loss. Phytophthora capsici parasitizes cocoa in Central and …Phytophthora megakarya—one of the cocoa black pod disease species, is invasive and probably responsible for the greatest cocoa crop loss in Africa; Phytophthora multivora—discovered in analysis of isolates with P. cinnamomi dieback infections of tuart forests of Southwest Australia, which were previously diagnosed as P. citricola.Newly encountered pathogens in West Africa (Cacao swollen shoot virus and Phytophthora megakarya) and Asia [Ceratobasidium (aka Oncobasidium) theobromae] are serious problems in those areas, as are other fungi and stramenopiles with wider geographic distributions. The ranges of the major pathogens and the impacts and losses that result …Research on resistance to black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya has been carried out in Cameroon for 40 years. It has yielded a significant database which is currently being exploited for the modelling of disease resistance levels of the major clones selected as candidate parents for the creation of new resistant and consequently more productive cocoa varieties.Jan 15, 2021 · Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora cause black pod rot of cacao. P. megakarya occurs in Africa while P. palmivora is distributed world-wide. P. palmivora has a higher temperature ... Phytophthora megakarya, a Causal Agent of Black Pod Rot in Africa 1 Introduction. Phytophthora megakarya (Brasier and Griffin 1979 ), one of several …Phytophthora on cocoa pods. Adebola and Amadi (2011, 2012) reported using the fungi Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. isolated from rhizosphere soils, to control black pod in the field. megakarya These antagonists/agents provide beneficial protective effects by using different mechanisms of suppression andThe species Phytophthora megakarya is the principal pathogenic agent in Cameroon. ... resistant to P. megakarya and P. palmivora (Nyasse et al., 2007) has yet been identified. Certain clones show ...Phytophthora megakarya est responsable de la pourriture brune qui ravage le cacaoyer en Afrique, mettant en péril la production mondiale de cacao. Cet agent pathogène endémique à l'Afrique y a probablement émergé suite à l'introduction du cacaoyer au 19e siècle. L'hypothèse la plus probable est celle d'un saut d'hôte à partir d ...Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is the most important fungal disease on cocoa in Ghana. The current recommended control method of combining sanitation practices with 6 - 8 ...Phytophthora megakarya is an increasingly important invasive pathogen of cocoa in West Africa, where it forms part of the black‐pod disease complex together with the more widespread, but less aggressive, P. palmivora. Its purported centre of diversity, based on evidence from molecular studies and mating types, lies on the Cameroon-Nigeria border, from where it has spread throughout both ...A new distribution map is provided for Phytophthora megakarya Brasier & M.J. Griffin. Hosts: Cocoa (Theobroma cacao). Information is given on the geographical distribution in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Togo.Phytophthora megakarya Brasier and Griffin (Pmeg) occurs only in the countries of West and Central Africa and is considered a significant pathogen only on cacao.Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important …"Evaluation of the Epidemiological Factors Responsible for the Appearance of Phytophthora Palmivora and Phytophthora Megakarya, Causal Agent of Black Pods Disease in the Department of Méagui, Southwes," International Journal of Sciences, Office ijSciences, vol. 9(05), pages 1-8, May.Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora are considered the most important for cacao cultivation in Central and West Africa and most studies are related to them (Guest 2007; Adomako 2007 ...1 A new oil-based formulation of Trichoderma asperellum for the biological control of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya J.B. Mbarga a,b, B.A.D Begoude a, Z. Ambangb, M. Meboma , J. Kuate , B. Schiffersc, W. Ewbankd, Laurence Dedieue, Martijn ten Hoopena,f,* a Laboratoire Régional de Lutte Biologique et de Microbiologie …Phytophthora megakarya causes the severest damage in the main cacao producing countries in West Africa, while P. palmivora causes significant losses globally. M. perniciosa is related to a sister ...Phytophthora megakarya (Q16976160) From Wikidata. Jump to navigation Jump to search. species of fungus. edit. Language Label Description Also known as; English: Phytophthora megakarya. species of fungus. Statements. instance of. taxon. 0 references. short name. P. megakarya (English) 0 references.Phytophthora megakarya is an Oomycete which has a negative impact on Cameroon cocoa production. An assessment of the level of virulence of different isolates of P. megakarya in mono or coinfection ...Seed extracts were tested for inhibition of P. megakarya, a causal agent of black pod disease of Theobroma cacao. Four strains of P. megakarya (BOK 11; BOYO; TA121 and TA123) were used.Phytophthora ramorum and Phytium myriotylum (Mbarga et al., 2012; Widmer, 2014) Since primary inoculum of P. megakarya is located in the soil (Mfegue, 2012; Ristaino and Gumpertz, 2000), if soil borne inoculum could be eliminated or prevented from reaching cacao pods,Phytophthora pod rot (Black pod disease)-Ghana: Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora; Anonom, Asukuo, Kokoo proye Authors : A. Y. Akrofi , E. Moses Authors Info & Affiliations Publication : PlantwisePlus Knowledge BankDiversity of Phytophthora megakarya in Central and West Africa revealed by isozyme and RAPD markersPhytophthora megakarya is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in west and central Africa. This pathogen can cause ...Introduction. Two species of Phytophthora, P. palmivora and P. megakarya are the main causal pathogens of black pod disease of cocoa in West Africa.P. palmivora has been reported on a large number of host plants. Ashby (1929) described P. palmivora as an omnivorous tropical fungal pathogen of world-wide distribution, existing as a number of morphologically and sometimes pathologically ...Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses in Cameroon.Field experiments were carried out over two successive years in two smallholders' plots of cocoa trees, in order to assess the impact of diseased pod removal (phytosanitary pod removal) on disease progress, total production and final harvest.Phytophthora palmivora was first identified as P. omnivora (Massee, 1899), the cause of black pod disease of cocoa, Theobroma cacao, and as Pythium palmivorum ( Butler, 1907), the cause of destructive diseases in palms. The pathogen was later renamed P. palmivora by Butler in 1919 (Butler, 1919).In Cameroon, Phytophthora megakarya is the causal agent of black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). Primary inoculum of P. megakarya is located in the soil. With the onset of the rainy season, this primary inoculum is activated and through rain splash cacao pods become infected. From there repeated cycles of pod infection, …A severe black pod disease of cocoa in Ghana caused by Phytophthora megakarya was first reported in 1985, even though there is evidence that the fungus might have existed earlier. Until then, only Phytophthora palmivora which causes a less severe black pod disease was known in Ghana. P. megakarya has changed the status of black pod disease in Ghana, causing serious crop losses and great ...Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important disease on cacao globally. While P. palmivora is a cosmopolitan pathogen, P. megakarya , which is more aggressive on cacao than P. palmivora , has been reported only in West and Central Africa where ...Phytophthora parasitica is a soilborne pathogen with a wide range of host plants and represents most species in the genus Phytophthora. In this review, we present some recent progress of P. parasitica research by highlighting important features that make it emerge as a model species of oomycete pathogens. The emerged model pathogen will ...Objective: The in vitro and in vivo effects of seed extracts of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) on the growth and the germination of spores of Phytophthora megakarya causal agent of black pod of cocoa was evaluated. Methodology and results: Five extracts obtained by soxhlet apparatus (extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous extract) were used.Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is the most important fungal disease on cocoa in Ghana. The current recommended control method of combining sanitation practices with 6 - 8 ...Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao …Phytophthora megakarya is a devastating oomycete pathogen that causes black pod disease in cacao. Phytophthora species produce a protein that has a similar sequence to the necrosis and ethylene inducing protein (Nep1) of Fusarium oxysporum.Multiple copies of NEP1 orthologs (PmegNEP) have been identified in P. megakarya and four other Phytophthora species (P. citrophthora, P. capsici, P ...Feb 2, 2022 · Phytophthora megakarya isolate used in this study was obtained from the microorganism bank of the Laboratory of Phytoprotection and Plant Valorization (LPPV) of the Biotechnology Centre of the University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon. Zoospore suspensions of P. megakarya isolate PM5 were obtained as described previously . Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important disease on cacao globally. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, Pmeg, which is moreCertificate of Analysis Download To download a certificate of analysis for Phytophthora megakarya Brasier et Griffin (MYA-4040), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip.The genus Phytophthora has been studied at the cellular level, suggesting that different developmental steps are induced by the expression of some specific genes. However, these studies have only been carried out on certain species, such as Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora cactorum. ... Phytophthora megasperma and Phytophthora megakarya ...Phytophthora megakarya is restricted to countries of West and Central Africa and considered to be a significant pathogen only on cacao. Black pod was originally reported to be caused by P. palmivora , but further findings have proven otherwise in that each continent has a complex of Phytophthora species, which induce black pod disease on cacao.Phytophthora megakarya was frequently isolated from all the three sources of canker infections, indicating P. megakarya readily causes stem canker on cocoa. These results emphasise the importance of different reservoirs as sources of primary inoculum for diseases caused by the two Phytophthora species particularly pod rot infection on cocoa.Phytophthora megakarya Brasier & Griffin, is one of the Oomycete pathogens reported on Theobroma cacao, and it is the most virulent of the Phytophthora species that causes black pod disease. Phytophthora megakarya was first reported as the causal agent of black pod disease in 1979 after the reclassification of PhytophthoraThe role of tcGASA genes in conferring fungal resistance was also explored based on RNAseq data against Phytophthora megakarya . The differential expression of tcGASA genes was recorded between the tolerant and susceptible cultivars of cacao plants, which were inoculated with the fungus for 24h and 72h. This differential expression …54 the black pod disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Two of the several species of the black pod 55 pathogen namely P. palmivora and P. megakarya have been identified as the causal agent of the 56 disease in Nigeria. P. palmivora (less than 20% distribution) and P. megakarya (over 80% 57 distribution) occur on cacao in Nigeria (3, 6-12).The negative control using sterile distilled water showed no inhibitory effect on Phytophthora megakarya while 41.00 mm zone of clearance was observed in the positive control test using Metalaxyl ...Black pod rot of cocoa caused by Phytophthora megakarya causes significant losses in Cameroon. Normally (chemical) control efforts only begin when the first diseased pods appear. In theory, preventive control, focusing on reducing primary inoculum orValidity of a leaf inoculation test to assess the resistance to Phytophthora megakarya in a cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) diallel mating design . × Close Log In. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. or. Email. Password. Remember me on this computer. or reset password. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset linkPhytophthora megakarya is an important pathogen of cocoa in Africa. We used isozyme and RAPD markers to estimate the genetic diversity and structuring among 161 isolates, from the known distribution area of the fungus which corresponds to the cocoa belt in Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon and Sao Tome.Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses in Cameroon.Field experiments were carried out over two successive years in two smallholders’ plots of cocoa trees, in order to assess the impact of diseased pod removal (phytosanitary pod removal) on disease progress, total production and final harvest.Phytophthora megakarya is restricted to Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, and Ghana, causing about 10 percent crop loss. Phytophthora capsici parasitizes cocoa in Central and South America. It is the predominant cause of pod rot in Brazil where it is less aggressive than Phytophthora palmivora. Phytophthora citrophthora also attacksPhytophthora megakarya Taxonomy ID: 4795 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid4795) current name. Phytophthora megakarya. type material of Phytophthora megakarya: ATCC:42100, CBS:238.83, IMI:202077. NCBI BLAST name: downy mildews Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)PDF | On Oct 1, 2014, J.B. Mbarga and others published A new oil-based formulation of Trichoderma asperellum for the biological control of cacao black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya ...Phytophthora megakarya Taxonomy ID: 4795 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid4795) current name. Phytophthora megakarya. type material of Phytophthora megakarya: ATCC:42100, CBS:238.83, IMI:202077. NCBI BLAST name: downy mildews Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)Seed extracts were tested for inhibition of P. megakarya, a causal agent of black pod disease of Theobroma cacao. Four strains of P. megakarya (BOK 11; BOYO; TA121 and TA123) were used.Studying spatial and temporal plant disease dynamics helps us to understand pathogen dispersal processes and improve disease control recommendations. In this study, three cacao plots devoid of primary inoculum of <i>Phytophthora megakarya</i> (causal agent of cacao black pod rot disease) upon establ …Research on resistance to black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya has been carried out in Cameroon for 40 years. It has yielded a significant database which is currently being exploited for the modelling of disease resistance levels of the major clones selected as candidate parents for the creation of new resistant and consequently more productive cocoa varieties.La diversite genetique des isolats de phytophthora megakarya provenant de quelques pays d'afrique centrale (cameroun, gabon et sao tome) et d'afrique de l'ouest (nigeria, togo et ghana) a ete etudiee par des marqueurs biochimiques (isozymes) et moleculaires (rapd). La separation de cette espece en deux grands groupes correspond bien a la ...Aug 1, 2022 · Flavonoids are phenolic compounds involved in defense mechanisms against black pod disease (BPD). Crossing between Forastero and Trinitario-resistant cocoa genotypes usually produce resistant progenies with high contents of bioactive components. This study aims at analyzing flavan-3-ol and flavonol content in the defense against P. megakarya in T. cacao genotypes for their potential selection ... Comparative Assessment of the Resistance of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Progenies from SNK10 x SNK413; ICS84 x ICS95 to Phytophthora megakarya in Cameroon by ...Phytophthora palmivora was first identified as P. omnivora (Massee, 1899), the cause of black pod disease of cocoa, Theobroma cacao, and as Pythium palmivorum ( Butler, 1907), the cause of destructive diseases in palms. The pathogen was later renamed P. palmivora by Butler in 1919 (Butler, 1919). Studying spatial and temporal plant disease dynamics helps us to understand pathogen dispersal processes and improve disease control recommendations. In this study, three cacao plots devoid of primary inoculum of Phytophthora megakarya (causal agent of cacao black pod rot disease) upon establishment in 2006 were monitored for presence of …Sep 1, 2002 · The expansion of the black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya) during heavy rains is very common in the equatorial rainforest of Cameroon (Opoku et al., 2002; Atangana et al., 2013). A study ... A description is provided for Phytophthora megakarya. Information is included on the disease caused by the organism, its transmission, geographical distribution, and hosts. HOSTS: Cacao. DISEASE: Black pod of cacao. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: West Africa including Nigeria. TRANSMISSION: By rain splash from soil (an important source of infection .... The arrival and subsequent dispersal of PhytophPhytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) occurs only in the countries of Wes Phytophthora megakarya is an Oomycete which has a negative impact on Cameroon cocoa production. An assessment of the level of virulence of different isolates of P. megakarya in mono or coinfection ...Phytophthora parasitica is a soilborne pathogen with a wide range of host plants and represents most species in the genus Phytophthora. In this review, we present some recent progress of P. parasitica research by highlighting important features that make it emerge as a model species of oomycete pathogens. The emerged model pathogen will ... Phytophthora megakarya, pathoge ` ne du cacaoyer au Camer The arrival and subsequent dispersal of Phytophthora megakarya within young cacao plantations, previously free of black pod and containing cacao germplasm that is evaluated for its resistance to P. megakarya, is the subject of an ongoing study in Cameroon. A total of 12 plantations, established in 2006 Many Phytophthora species have a soil borne phase in thei...

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